Welcome on Genevo, the personal site of Willem Schot.
The live is clear as pure water but inscrutable deep.
The live grows also away from the water as does the bud of the lotus.
The live speaks to us without language and her communication is endless.
We cannot survey all the life and can only believe in the unity of live, as our ancestors did.
Their belief was their lack of knowledge and we think to know a lot about the live.
The origin of the life was described by religion and mysticism.
Now we believe its origin has been described by the rational sciences.
So why do not they agree with each other?
Why should the mysticism be not rational and why should the sciences be not mystic?
Good rational philosophers as Spinoza see this struggle indeed as a misunderstanding.
In short the live puzzles me and makes me curious to know who are our ancestors and why we are different from them….and so I made a genealogy of my ancestors ànd went studying the evolution.
A curious combination people would think. I did see this indeed as two different actions, without liaison, but nevertheless later on arose a link between the genealogy and the micro-evolution study. Requiring your ancestry is very funny, but the evolution study arose by asking principle questions like: how is it possible that the genetic systems can plainly change and how can arise plainly a new species by this passive selection only on external conditions, as I did learn it. I want to know anything about these curious things. So at first I needed a correct insight in the basis of this: what is the genuine scientific tenet of the micro-evolution, learning the genetic changing within the species caused by the differential transfer of mutated genes to the following generations by selection or accident. The theoretical basis by calculating the probabilities of the gene transfer should be clearly explained in the manuals and the scientific data, I supposed, but this was not fulfilled. The calculations, I did find, about the genetic drift disappointed me, giving not the direct information about the differentiation in the numbers of the transferred mutations. That is why I decided to search for this direct information by calculating simply with the statistic distributions. The calculations, the conclusions and ideas about the micro-evolution are published on this site. It in plan is a philosophical study as a start for a much wider study about the evolution that yet is to be made. This is the summery.
You expect the genetic changes in a population are described as random or non random and thus selective, but this appears not to be the case. Random genetic changes are nearly always described as genetic drift with changes in the heterozygosis, but the gene frequencies and so the random genetic changes are not to be deduced from this total heterozygosis. So it is tried to develop a uniform theory with the random expected genetic change as the neutral theory and the zero hypothesis for the selection. For the procreation and gene transfer from the individual in a large, relative unlimited population the Poisson distribution is the obvious method for calculating the random expected genetic change. Yet also in small populations this distribution appears accurate and well applicable. The Poisson distribution appears very flexible in the sense that the parameters determining the intensity can describe well the small populations and the population dynamics (change in size and allele selection). By means of the parameters you can also find indications for the complicated effect of the selection in the procreation on the allele transfer. Even with a very simple application of this theory there are immediate indications that the selection by people has been suddenly stopped with the entrance of the modern society. The relevancy in the appearance of the mutations for the dynamics of the organism and the species is checked. By making simple distributions the transfer of the alleles through the generations is followed in coherence with the random variation in the effective procreation. These distributions are superposed over some generations. This superposition of the distributions is possible by working systematically with the Poisson distribution, but it is very laborious. It appears than that the accumulation of the distributions over many generations can easily be calculated, only for the exponential part of the Poisson distribution The result of it the P0, the extinction of the neutral alleles is essential for the random theory. The calculations of the extinction with the exponential recurrence formula is also possible with population specific parameters determining the cumulated exponential intensity are interesting. They give information over the random neutral path and the non random selection. This is showed by describing the decay of the alleles over many generation in tables for populations, large and small, increasing and decreasing in size, with and without selection, with and without inbreeding. The random path of larger quantities of the alleles and thus allele frequencies is also described. Important is however that these simple distributions do describe primarily the decay of the absolute quantities, the “quanta”, of the offspring and the alleles. In literature investigation later I found that these extinction is also described plain by Motoo Kimura, but he reduced them not in this basic way. There is some evidence that the conclusion of Kimura’s and others ware: the calculations of the extinctions are not relevant, because they are not applicable in a limited population. Nowise this, the extinction is essential in a logic consistent theory.
Points of attention are:
The neutral theory as the zero hypothesis for the genetic selection concerns exclusively the direct changes in numbers or frequencies of alleles and/or descendants of individuals as described here. Changes in the heterozygosis are an indirect basis for the neutral theory.
The direct neutral change or allele extinction is also described in the limited and small population and gives here besides the genetic drift extra information over the genetic changes.
Selection always is the result of non random differences in the parities, the offspring of the individuals.
And then something different:
Another topic that draw my attention is the natural evolution of the climate and how people now begin to influence this. A very intriguing topic that concerns all of us.
The Sun and the deluge, Summary
This study is an attempt to get more insight in the consequences of the emission of greenhouse gasses by people. The work is still in construction, but these parts may already be interesting because by this original approach new aspects were found that did anyway surprise the author much. In answer to the questions at this problem at first is made an analysis of the natural changes in the climate on Earth, mainly for the last 40000 years. The basis for this study are the by NOAA published tables with data mainly from the ice cores about the climate parameters of the past as are: the temperature, the greenhouse gasses, the counted sunspot numbers, the radio nuclides as the proxies for the magnetic activity of the Sun, the precipitation and the differences in irradiation by orbit. Long curves were made of these variables, which are in the time much more elaborated than are to be found in the scientific literature. At these graphics the interactions of these climate factors are easily to be studied and are accessible for everyone, so that insight in causal relations may arise. The curves also do give direct information about the reliability of the proxies for the Sun. This study gives surprising evidence that the Sun often was the determining factor for the substantive fast climate changes in the last 40000 years. Also the cycles in the activity of the Sun can be studied better at the long curves and some regularities than are to be found. This however is no wise reason to minimize the problem of the modern greenhouse gas increase. On the contrary, the expected warming-up by this may have an irregular course by the variations of the Sun, which will enlarge the chance on disasters.